Open Source Research project on Silver Nanoparticles (Colloidal Silver), its antiviral and antimicrobial properties and its potential against COVID-19 coronavirus

EPIDEMICINE is a research project on antiviral, antibacterial & antimicrobial properties of Silver Nanoparticles, also often called Colloidal Silver.

Silver has been used since ages as a potent and powerful medicine. Romans and Greeks used silver utensils for keeping the milk and water preserved when there were no refrigerators. Silver utensils are used in Indian culture for its health benefits. Ayurveda recognizes Silver (Rajata) as a powerful medicine. Silver is also officially a medication in allopathy and has existed in various form like Argyrol, Electrargol, Collargol, Protargol, Colloidal Silver, Silver Protein, Silver Sulfadiazine, Silver Nitrate, etc. Silver has helped the mankind in fighting many epidemics.

The latest European Pharmacopoeia (Ph Eur monograph 2281) lists Colloidal Silver as an antibacterial Drug Substance which means that modern allopathy fully recognizes Silver Nanoparticles as an antimicrobial medication.

This project is an attempt to provide authentic information about silver nanoparticles, to provide various easy to perform methods of synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles, to the extent that the researching and self-experimenting individuals can safely make it for their own research and self-experimentation. One of the main objectives is to become a source of authentic self- research and self-experimentation information and results, and to make a platform for the research community doing research on Silver Nanoparticles.

Join Epidemicine

Researchers and Experimenters please join this forum, give your inputs and share your experiments and experiences.

If you want your article or research paper to be posted on this website, then please send us by email. We would be more than happy to post it here.

Self-Experimenters can send us their signed testimonials about their research and self-experimentation on silver nanoparticles on our email so that we can review them and post in our testimonial section for others to gain knowledge from your self-experimentation studies.

What are Silver Nanoparticles

Silver (Ag) nanoparticles are nano sized particles of elemental silver, of size less than 100 nanometers. Silver Nanoparticles have been synthesized in various shapes and sizes like spherical, triangular, nano-rods, prisms, nano-wires, etc. and sizes ranging from 1 nm to 100 nm.

Current uses of Silver Nanoparticles

  • Silver Sulfadiazine is the main and primary treatment for severe burns due to its strong antimicrobial action by releasing silver ions and nanoparticles.
  • Silver Nanoparticles are now impregnated in various medical implants and surgical devices due to its strong antimicrobial action.
  • Silver Nanoparticles are used in wound dressings as antimicrobial.
  • Silver Nanoparticles are used in textiles, air purifiers and water purifiers for its antimicrobial properties.
  • How Silver Nanoparticles work?

    Silver Nanoparticles are very well established as broad spectrum antimicrobial and are used now days in many products and medical devices like wound dressings, implants, etc. for its antimicrobial properties. There is ample evidence of broad-spectrum antiviral activity of Silver Nanoparticles in form of authentic published research papers. The antiviral activity of Silver Nanoparticles has been found against over 24 different viruses including HIV-1, HSV-1, Respiratory syncytial virus, Monkeypox virus, Influenza virus, Hepatitis B Virus, etc. No other antiviral agent exhibits such broad-spectrum antiviral activity. Broad Spectrum and non-specific antiviral are the need of the hour when there is no or little information and knowledge about the COVID-19 virus.

    The broad spectrum and non-specific mode of action of Silver Nanoparticles is because of its nano size much smaller than the size of microbes, due to which it can easily penetrate the cell walls and is presumed that it inhibits the growth by suppressing respiratory enzymes and electron transport components and through interference with DNA functions.

    It is known that Silver Nanoparticles bind with viral envelope glycoprotein and inhibit the virus by binding to the disulfide bond regions of the CD4 binding domain within the HIV-1 viral envelope glycoprotein gp120, as suggested by Elechiguerra Et al. This fusion inhibition was also demonstrated by Lara Et al.

    The antiviral activity of AgNPs has been reported on the hepatitis B virus (HBV) using a HepAD38 human hepatoma cell line. There is evidence of high binding affinity of nanoparticles for HBV DNA and extracellular virions with different sizes (10 and 50 nm). It has been demonstrated that AgNPs could also inhibit the production of HBV RNA and extracellular virions in vitro.

    The presumed mode of action is such that viruses cannot develop resistance against Silver as compared to antibiotics as Silver attacks a broad range of targets in the microbes. Viruses possess no system of defence against AgNPs and their endlessly evolving cycle of viral protein mutations cannot shield their recurrent vulnerability to the denaturing action of Silver.

    In fact, one research [5] has proven that the microbes killed due to the action of silver, start killing other living microbes like "Zombie" and act as reservoir of silver, which is re-targeted to the living microbes.

    Modes of Antiviral Action of Silver Nanoparticles.

    Images obtained from: Stefania G, Annarita F, & ors, 2011, PMC 6264685 ; Naik & Kaushik, Journal of applied microbiology, 2017; Rout George Kerry Et al, Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine.

    Are Silver Nanoparticles Toxic?

    Silver has never shown any acute or serious toxicity except a benign and mild toxicity called Argyria which is grey pigmentation of skin due to heavy doses of ionic silver. In fact, a 10ppm total daily dose of Silver, when taken for lifetime, is known to be non-toxic. There are many studies and lot of research published which attempt to find toxicity of silver nanoparticles, but no acute toxicity has been established including carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. WHO has reported an oral NOEL for Argyria in humans for a total lifetime intake of 10 g of Silver. EPA has documented the toxicity assessment of Silver (CASRN 7440-22-4) and reports no evidence of human carcinogenicity or mutagenicity. EPA and WHO also consider Silver as safe disinfectant for drinking water.

    Why aren’t Silver Nanoparticles approved Antiviral?

    Silver was the most powerful and very commonly used antimicrobial and epidemic medicine before the invention of antibiotics. In a race to sell and popularize new patented antibiotics, use of silver was suppressed. Since the Silver Nanoparticle is a known technology and due to its non-patentability, the Pharma companies are not promoting and developing Silver Nanoparticles as antiviral. The present process of drug approval costs millions of dollars and without a robust patent benefit, no big pharma company would invest money in conducting clinical trials. When all the known antibiotics are proving to be a failure against the novel viruses like COVID-19, there could be no justified reason for ignoring a robust and safe weapon which has proved its broad-spectrum and non-specific antiviral activity.

    Disclaimer: The information available on this website is only for research purpose. Any information published on this website should not be interpreted as a medication, cure, prophylaxis or health supplement. Any experimentation performed using the information available on this website would be on the own risk of the experimenter and the information available on this website should not be considered as an advice or suggestion to perform any experimentation. This open source research project should not be interpreted/considered as a clinical study or trial.

    Kindly note that we are not selling any product here. So please do not send any purchase inquiries. We also do not recommend any product selling over the internet or at the retail outlets.

    Declaration for Conflict of Interest:

    The owner of this website declares the following professional activities in relation to the published research and the content on this website:

  • The author Mr. Achal Agrawal is CEO of a pharma company, which manufactures Silver based APIs. No commercial manufacturing of Silver Nano materials is presently done by this company. This non-profit project and research work are purely his personal activity.
  • There is no other conflict of interest.


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